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46/ ) 

XXV. Enumeration of tlie various Classes of Population, and of Trades 
and Handicrafts, in the town of Bareilly in Rohilkliand, formerly the 
capital of the Rohilla Government. By Robert TuoiLds Johx Gltx, Esq., 

Read March IS, 1826. 

The degree of civilization attained by a nation may, in a great measure, 
be estimated by the progress which it has made in those useful arts, trades, 
and employments, by means of -which the necessaries, conveniencies, and 
luxuries of life are formed, collected, and distributed. In order to judge of 
the degree of this advancement, perhaps no better criterion need be sought 
than observing the divisions and subdivisions found to exist in its trades, 
manufactures, and other callings. By comparing - these with the state of 
manufactures, trade, and commerce of other nations, a tolerably correct 
notion may be formed of the point which such people has actually attained 
in the scale of social refinement. Under this impression,- I have considered 
that it might not be unacceptable to the Royal Asiatic Society to receive a 
statement of the various trades, manufactures, and other occupations existing 
in a principal town of Hindustan, and of the designations and estimated 
numbers of the castes and tribes, Hindu and Mahomedan, residing therein. 
Such statement appears calculated, not only to convey a notion of the degree 
of advancement in the useful arts as regards the urban inhabitants of the 
upper provinces of Hindustan, but also to illustrate their wants, habits, and 
peculiar usages, in relation to food, dress, amusements, and habitations. 

A residence of some years in an official capacity at the town of Bareilly, 
has afforded me an opportunity of procuring the statement now submitted. 
It was framed with a view to a more equal assessment of a tax or rate for 
the support of watchmen. Considerable care and diligence was employed in 
its formation ; and, to the best of my information and judgment, it is as ac- 
curate as the nature of the undertaking, and the want of skill and practice 
of the native officers in collecting and arranging statistical information, ad- 
mits of. The errors and deficiencies in the due classification of castes, 
trades and professions, which will be found in the following statement, must 

468 Mr. Glyn on the various Classes of Population in Bareilly. 

be attributed to the same cause. The incidental remarks adjoined to the 
statement are my own. 

Statement of Die number of Houses and Shops in the Town of Bareilly in 
Rolulkhand ; with a specification of tlie principal Mahomedan and Hindu 
Tribes and Castes, and a detailed Enumeration of the various Trades and Pro- 
fessions therein existing. TJie survey from which this statement is taken was 
made in tlie year 1822. 

Number of houses and huts (brick and mud) 12,263 

Number of shops 1,668 

Total number of houses and shops..,. ~~. — ... 18,926 

Mahomedan houses inhabited by families not engaged 

in manufactures, or in retail trades 1,964 

Houses and shops inhabited by Mahomedan families 

engaged in manufactures or in retail trades 3,153 

Total amount of houses and shops inhabited by 7 ~~7"!T~ 

Mahomedan families S l} A * 

Estimated average of five persons to each family 5 

Gives as the Mahomedan inhabitants 25,585 

Houses inhabited by Hindu families no* engaged in manu- 
factures or retail trades 1,594 

Houses and shops inhabited by Hindu families engaged 

in manufacture or retail trade 6,447 

Total number of houses and shops inhabited •> 

bv Hindu families 5 ' 

Estimated average of five persons to each family 5 

Gives a total of Hindu population 40,205 

Here Mahomedan Houses and Shops inhabited are stated to be 5,117 

Hindu do do 8»0*1 


Above I have stated the total number of houses and shops in the town to be 13,926. This 
difference is owing to the former number (13,158) including those shops oidy which serve also as 
dwellinv-houses : whereas the latter number (13,926) includes ill houses .and .shops xokatsoever. 

Mr. Gltx on the.various Classes of Population in Bareitiy. 469 

Total Hindu population... .~.. ^.~..„.~~ 40,205 

Total Mahomedan.population.... .-.....►...-. ........... 25,585 

Total Mahomedan and Hindu population in the town of } fi „ Q() 

Bareilly - « i 

Add Christians ~ 5 

Grand total of inhabitants 65,795 

Number of wells in the town of Bareilly, 640 : — 

Made of brick ..«.« ~ 567 

Earthen wells ...» ~ »... 73 


Of this number about 150 are out of. repair, old and disused. 

Principal Mahomedan Families not employed in retail. Trade or Handicraft. 

No. of Families. 

Sayyids (claiming descent from the Prophet) 267 

Sheikhs (of Arab descent) 623 

Moghuls I67 

Afghans (or Rohillas from Cabul) 856 

Kunb6hs (a mixed race, Mahomedans, but having Hindu 
blood in their veins, looked down upon with contempt by 
other Mahomedan tribes) 51 

Total 1,964 

The Mahomedan families here enumerated include the nobility and 
gentry living upon land-rents or pensions; priests, learned doctors, pre- 
ceptors or students ; persons employed in public offices : many are officers 
in the army; a few are merchants; and many of the poorer families serve as 
private servants and as soldiers. 

In this, the more respectable part of the Mahomedan population, there 
are many very disaffected to the British Government In addition to the 
loss of power, and decline of wealth, honour, and patronage, incident to the 
rise of British dominion on. the ruin of Mahomedan sovereignty, the differ- 
ence of religion between the actual sovereign and the subject is a powerful 

470 Mr. Glyx on tlie various Classes of Population in Bareitty. 

motive of dislike and discontent, as the . Sayyids and Rohillas of this town 
are peculiarly bigotted in their religious opinions, and easily excited to re- 
ligious contention. 

Another fertile source of discontent is the want of employment for 
Mahomedans following the profession of arms. " The Sheikhs, Moghuls, 
and Rohillas of the town of Bareilly include numbers of this description 
of persons. They can rarely be induced to serve in our regular disciplined 
battalions ; and the irregular Native cavalry and infantry, both in our ser- 
vice and in the service of our Native allies, having for the most part been 
disbanded, their families are reduced to almost the lowest point of penury. 
The classes above alluded to form, it is true, but a small part of the popula- 
tion : yet their active and warlike spirit, and the authority and respectability 
arising from high birth, superior education, and the recollections of former 
power, give them great influence over the agricultural, manufacturing, and 
trading classes of the inhabitants, both Hindu and Mahomedan. 

The Hindu inhabitants of Bareilly have reason to be glad of the change, 
from Mahomedan intolerance and violence to British liberality and justice ; 
and, generally, the manufacturing and trading part of the community has 
reason to rejoice at no longer being burthened with such a variety of heavy 
and vexatious cesses, duties, and restrictions as were in force under both 
the Moghul and Rohilla Governments. 

Principal Hindu Castes not employed in retail Trade or Handicrafts. 

No. of Families. 

{These follow a variety of occupations, both clerical 
and secular; they are priests, merchants, land- 
holders, public officers, soldiers, &c 

Rajputs 50 Merchants, landholders, soldiers, &c 

( Employed in trade and banking. There are, besides 
-. 1.1. /i onn j these, more than 400 families of this tribe who are 

±SaKKals 200 < shop-keepers, and will be enumerated under their 

I proper heads. 

C Employed in public offices, and elsewhere, as clerks 
Kayatfhs, or Scribes 512 -? and village accountants; also engaged in trade 

(^ and agriculture. 

K. hetns 188 Landholders, merchants, soldiers, civil officers, &a 

Cashmerians 7 Merchants and factors. 

Total 1 594, /Hindu families not engaged in retail trades or handi- 

, y ^ crafts. 

Mr. Gltx on tlie various Classes of Population in Bareilly. 


Gexzsal Statement of the Number of Families engaged in Retail Trades, 
Manufactures, Handicrafts, Servile Professions, and Agriculture. 

Trade, &c. 

Number of Houses, 

Shops, &c 

i Average 
, Earnings per 


Sarrufs or Shroffs, Money- ~) 
changers, and Brokers > 65 
(Hindus) : ) 

Nurbafs or Cotton-cloth-' \ „, 

weavers (Mahomedans). 



Cotton-dressers (Mahome- \-in\ 
dans) ' J 

Carpet-weavers and Dea-, \ , - 

lers (Mahomedans) ' j 


Bookbinders (Mahome- \\ „ 
dans) / 

Cotton-twisters and Rope-|\ 1 
makers (Mahomedans) . :J 1 

Dealers in Silks and Mus-;\ 
lins (Hindus) ' ) 

Brocade-weavers (Maho- j\ 1 
medans) J 

Shoemakers and Slipper-; ) 1 
dealers (Hindus) J 







House. ") 
Shop. j 



Hup«s. j 

- 4 or 5 rupees -> 
(i.e. 8 or 10 I 

shillings) to ( I have taken the average value of 
as high as > the Rupee to be 2s. English. 
100 or more j 
monthly. J 

2 to 6 




Firework-artificers (Maho- '\ 8 
medans) J 7 

Houses. 1_ 1 

Shops, j \ 

! 3 to 4 



I 4 to 5 

4 to 5 

2 to 3 

7 to 8 

'During the marriage season, from 
February to June, they earn 
seven or eight rupees a month ; 
at other times they earn a 
subsistence by going out to ser- 

f They make shoes for Hindus of 
L kid or sheep leather. 

{' Fireworks are exhibited at all feasts 
and shows; otherwise, for so 
small and so very poor a popu- 
lation, eight families of this des- 
cription of artificers would be too 

to 8 

5 to 10 

4 to 5 

* For the most part, manufacturers and retail dealers have their houses and shops separate ; but many, 
it will be observed, fabricate and sell retail in their own houses, instead of shops ; others have shops and 
dwelling-houses united. When, as in the present example, no shops are mentioned, or that the number 
of shops in proportion to the number of houses enumerated is very small, it must be supposed that the 
manufacture or trade is chiefly or entirely conducted in the private dwelling; when, on the other 
hand, there are no houses, or very few houses in proportion to the number of shops mentioned, it must 
be inferred that the manufacturers or dealers reside in the back part of their shops, or in the upper story. 

The weaving of cotton cloths is carried on in the open air, in the yards adjoining their houses, or in 
the mangoe groves, or other open spaces in and about the town. This class is generally supposed to have 
been converted from Hinduism. 

Vol. I. 3Q 

472 Mr. Glyn on tlie various Classes of Population in Bareilly. 

Trade, &x. 

Seal-cutters and Engravers 


Number of Houses, 
Shops, &c. 


Earnings per 


}2 Houses. 
3. Shops. 


xng-saz, Colour-makersl 4 . Houses 
(Mahomedans) ■ J 


Fine Leather-cutters and 
Dealers (Mahomedans) 

Kite-makers and Dealers 



Canvas-weavers (Mahome-j \ 
dans) \ J 

Torch-bearers (Hindus).. 

Pansaris, Grocers an 

7 Houses. 
4 Houses. 

29 Houses. 

32 Houses. 

28 Hindus. \ 
4 Mahom. \ 

32 Houses. ) 
••! C 13G Hin. 5 Ma. > 

36 Houses. 

Kaseras, Copper Vessel-' \ 
dealers (Hindus) \j 

I C Houses 43 
Braziers and Pewterers....j ] Shops 

C 44 Hin 

!s4 ?U I 
in. 4 Ma. J 

Makers and Venders 
Lak'h ornaments (Hin 



4 Houses. \ 
6 Shops. j 

46 Hindus. } 
20 Mahom. 

66 Houses. 


5 to 6 

4 to 5 

5 to 10 
10 to 12 

3 to 4 

3 to 4 

50 to 100 

10 to 25 
10 to 25 

4 to 5 

4 to 10 

4 to 6 

5 to 50 

! ( 339 Hindus. 
Dealers in Flour and Meal, )j2. Mahom - 

l ( 369 Shops. ) ; 
i I 

| / 24 Hindus. \ j 

Ironmongers \) _S Mahom. (, j 4 , to 20 

I ( 27 Houses. ) j 


Tobacco-sellers (Mahome-j "j 68 Houses. \ ! „ 

dans) jj 65 Shops, j, 

Fruit-sellers (Mahome- !\ 21 Houses. \ : - t0 on 

dans). j 19 Shops. J 

In the season of kite-flying they 
earn this sum ; at other times of 
the year they go into service. 
Mahomedans in all parts of Asia 
are particularly fond of this 

(This opulent class manufacture 
) sugar by a very rude and imper- 
\ feet process, and sell it wholc- 
( sale and retail. 

(Copper vessels for kitchen utensils 
) and for dishes and plates are nl- 
\ most wholly manufactured in, and 
{ imported from Bengal. 

(They manufacture rings and brace- 
) lets, plain, varnished or plated, 
\ from the stick-lac brought from 
( the hills. 

Mr. Glyx on the various Classes of Population in Bareillj/. 473 

Trade, &:c. 

Number of Houses, 
Shops, &:c. 

Earnings per ; 
Month. : 


Silver and Gold Lace-dea- 
lers (Hindus) 


Mat-dealers (Hindus) < 

Shoemakers (Mahome- 
dans) ;. 


Bhaats, Bards or Hymn- 1 
singers (Hindus) j 

Calendrers' or Scourers 


Tinmen (Mahomedans)....! J 


Linen and Cloth-plaitersi 
(Hindus) ! 

Goldsmiths and Silver-, ") 
smiths (Hindus) jj 


17 Houses. 

15 Houses. 

1 Shop. 

10 Houses. 
41 Shops. 

110 Hindus. 
26 Mahom. 

136 Shops. 
36 Houses. 

9 Houses. 

2 Shops. 

10 Houses. 
8 Shops. 

7 Houses. 

200 Houses. 
90 Shops. 

112 Hindus. 

11 Mahom. 




10 to 12 

: J Thev make mats, fine and coarse, 

i ( ot bamboo and of grass. 


I ( They make shoes, for the use of 

6 to 20 : < Mahomedans only, of cow lea- 

: / ther. 

10 to 100 : 

j f This caste of Hindus go about 

i 2 to 3 i -< singing to the Hindu deities, and 

j f earn thus much bv begging. 

I *" 

4 to 5 ! 

5 to 12 

5 to 12 j 

/They make gold and silver orna- 
ments of every description, for 
. ..„ ...., men, women and children ; also 

■ j table ornaments, cups, bowls, 
! *> &c. and horse ornaments, &c.+ 

5 to 10 ! 

* Dealers in corn, as well as husbandmen, are almost universally Hindus. Indeed almost all concerned 
in the productions of the soil are of that religion. Mahomedans are found more numerous amongst the 
manufacturers of fine goods, as brocade, fine leather, &c. 

t Gold and silver-smiths are rarely possessed of capital; nor do they often make large fortunes, as in 
Europe: but there is work enough to occupy even 200 families. The inhabitants of the upper provinces, 
both Hindu and Mahomedan, lay out the greater part of their savings in ornaments, and this is probably 
more the case now than in former times. They now wear gold and silver more-, and bury less under ground, 
than under the Native governments: both because there is now much greater security from robbers; and 
because the possessors of wealth are not so much as formerly exposed to the rapacity of insatiable Native 
officers. The investment of money in ornaments and jewellery, in proportion to the amount of accumula- 
tion, is probably greater in the upper than in the lower provinces of India ; and this is owing to the wealthy 
classes in Bengal preferring to invest their capital in government funds or other securities. The great 
number of shops (considering the amount of the population and the paucity of wealth in this town) 
serves to show how vast is the consumption of gold and silver throughout India. 


47-i Mr. Glyn on the various Classes of Population in Bareilly. 

Trade, &c 

* m %£.'2r m ' aXTp-l 

Shops, &c. 


Polishers of Steel, Ar-| f H sh3«3 } 16 I 
&c (. 14 Hin. 2 Ma. 3 


63 Hindus. 

Blacksmiths 7_f°_ Mahom.' 

I ^ 103 Houses. 

Oilmen (Hindus) ' 150 Houses. 


Coarse Porcelain Manu- 
facturers and Dealers 

:rs r 

10 Houses. 

Bozgars, makers of Boza| u Houses . -> 
or Beer (Mahome^ j- 4 Shops . J 

dans) , 

Makers ' of Leather Bags, 
and vessels for hold-' 

I J 


ing water (Mahome- ( 
dans.) |J 

18 Houses. 

Dressers of Flour (Hindus).:-! 3 Shops. * j 

Bow and Arrow-makers ; 
. and Dealers (Mahome 

Glass Bracelet-makers and 



6 Houses. \ 
1 Shop. j" 

44 Houses. 


4 to 5 

5 to 20 

3 to 7 

4 to 10 

5 to 6 

4 to 5 

4 to 5 
4 to 5 
4 to 10 

Atars, Perfumers and, $ shops" 11 f 13 ^ ' 

-. Shops 
Druggists j (_ 8 Hin.o Mah 

Kahars, Palankeen-bearers 1 698 Houses. 
(Hindus) J 

Palladars Bag-carriers or \ 124 Houses> 
Porters (Hindus) J 

C They make and sell vegetable oils 
•! of various descriptions, chief- 
( ly for food. 

(A very inferior sort of manufacture, 
) porous, and soon unfit for hold- 
\ ing water; but by skill might be 
( easily much improved. 

( They make palm-wine, and beer, of 
I barley and of sugar. 

( They prepare flue wheaten flour 
\ moistened (dough), for sale. 

("They make bracelets, rings, and 
J other ornaments of glass, plain, 
(_ varnished, and plated. 

In this country perfumes, medi- 

3 ( \ f In this country perfumes, medi- 

(10 to 100 j J cines, and drugs are always 
• -j I l_ vended in the same shop. 

Sadu-kars, Setters of 
Jewels &c 

4 Hindus. 
3 Mahom. 

7 Shops. 

Beldars, Hoe and Mattock- 
diggers, Labourers (Hin- ^986 Houses, 

i 3 to 4 

4 to 5 

; 10 tO 15 

t They carry palankeens when want- 
) ed, and at other times gain a 
\ livelihood by fishing in pools or 
( rivers, or by agriculture. 

; fSome hire themselves out as la- 
4 to 5 J bourers ; others cultivate little 
' L fields of their own. 

Mr. Glyx on the various Classes of Population in Bareilhj. 

•± / o 

Trade, &c 


Number of Houses, 
Shops, &c. 

Average ■ 
I Earnings per ! 
I Month. 


Dealers in Spirits (Hindus)! J 

| I 


Tamers of Hawks, Tal-, \ 
cons, &c. (Mahomedans) / 

Chob-dars, Javelin-men and 
Silver-stick Bearers.... 

Turban-makers and Ven- 

Farriers (Mahomedans)... 

Naicha-bands, Hiikka, 
snake, Tobacco-pipe- 
makers and Dealers 

Lime-burners and dealers 

Bakers (Mahomedans) . 

Carters, Owners of Carts 
for Hire 


25 Hindus. 
54 Mahom. 

79 Houses, 

6 Houses. 
8 Shops. 

10 Houses. 

8 Hindus. 
6 Mahom. 

14 Houses. 

2 Hindus. 
1 Mahom. 

3 Sh ops. 
8 Houses. 

16 Shops. 

10 Houses. 
4 Shops. 

11 Houses. 
21 Shoos. 

11 Hindus. 
4 Mahom. 

15 Houses. 
1 House. 


9 to 10 

100, out of ■ 
which the 
duty is to 
be paid. 

4 to 5 

Elephant-drivers (Maho- 
medans) -. 

Camel-drivers (Mahome-1 nr , TT 
dans) . jj 28Ho 



Embroiderers (Mahome- 
dans) , 

Horse-cloth-makers, &c. 

144 Hindus. 
1 Mahom. 

145 Houses. 
7 Houses. 

14 Houses. 

The use of spirits being more 
strictly interdicted to Mahome- 
dans than to Hindus, a Maho- 
medan publican b rarely found. 

4 to b 

10 to 15 

4 to 5 

4 to 5 

7 to 15 
4 to 5 

2 to 3 

4 to 5 

3 to 4 

5 to 6 

3 to 4 

' C Employed in the retinue of public 
i < officers and noblemen and gen- 
'■ £ tleinen. 

(They only supply Mahomedans 
) and Christians with bread ; the 
\ Hindus not eating bread prepared 
( by strange hands. 

5 There are 116 bullock carts, private 
I and for hire, in this town. 

("Native affluence and pomp is much 

| reduced in the upper provinces. 

) There were, it is said, a great 

S many more elephants in Bareilly 

| some years ago than there are at 
I. present. 

!Here, as in all Asiatic towns, both 
within and around the town, are 
gardens and orchards without 

{ They make cloth-housings and trap- 
( ings for elephants and horses. 

,'G Mr. Grrx on tJie various Classes of Population in Bareilly. 

Trade, &c. 

Number of Houses, 
Shops, &c. 

Tent-makers j 21 Houses. 

Water-carriers (Mahome-j \ ^^ 
dans) J 

Lodas, a caste of fiel<U 408 Houses . 
labourers I 


Mirdehas, Measurers of. ) ^ n „ 
Lands (Mahomedans) ...!/ ' U tioases - 

Patwis, Pearl and Jewel-' | 22 Houses: 
stringers (Hindus) j 


Earnings per 




4 to 5 

2 to 4 

3 to 4 

4 to 5 

I 4 to 5 

Tambolis, Dealers in Betel-'; ) 55 Houses. \ i 
leaf. &c. (Hindus) \j 38 Shops. J 

/ 58 Hindus. 
Saddlers and Harness- \ 60 Mahom. 

makers ') 

(118 Houses. 

Milkmen (Mahomedans)...' 15 Houses. 

Bhorchis, Grain- roasters "1 , ._, TT 
(Hindus) ij 14 ' Houses - 

i t 39 Hindus. \ 
Calico-printers !/ 20 Mahom. (, 

; ( 59 Houses. ; 

| ( 105 Hindus. \ 
Pastry-cooks and uoniec-; ) ^ Mahom. ( 

tioners \ * " '( 

\-( 120 Shops. ) 

4 to 10 

| ( They make tents, '&c. of cotton 
1 { cloth. 

i ('Hindus are their own water-carriers, 
| j and do not buy water for fear of 
; ) pollution. There are no water- 

1 pipes, pumps, fountains or cis- 
terns in this town : the water is 
raised by the hand from wells. 

; 5 Besides working in the fields, they 
i I winnow and clean rice. 

i ("Many are in the employ of Govern- 
\< ment; others find occupation in 
'; (_ private measurements. 

The areca nut, lime, and the in- 
spissated juice of the catechu- 
tree, with the betel leaf, form an 
agreeable stimulant, ^ind a fa- 
vourite luxury of all who can af- 
ford it. The Tambolis prepare 
and sell it. The areea nut and the. 
leaf of the betel vine are mostly 
brought from the lower pro- 

Turners (Mahomedans) .... 5 Houses. i 7 or S 


4 to 10 

5 to 6 

4 to 5 

4 to 10 

4 to 25 

(They make leather saddles and har- 
) ness for horses, and pads for 
\ camels, and line haudahs for 
( elephants. 

i ("They only supply Mahomedans. 
i J The Hindu will not buy milk 
; (_ for fear of pollution. 

' They roast (or parch) and sell to 
the Chabina-farosh roasted or 
parched wheat, millet, pease, In- 
dian corn,&c.,andihe latter class 
sell it aaain retail. 


( Sugar, honey, fruits, butter, and 
j various oils are mixed up with 
j the flour of rice, wheat, Indian 
corn, or pease: this is the most 
I common composition of their 
(_ sweetmeats and cakes. 

t The paucity of theseartisans shews 
j the little use there is of house- 
•' hold furniture in India ; we find 
1 no cabinet-makers or uphols- 
{. terers.* 

* Most English gentlemen have their own private carpenters and turners, hired by the month, to make 
tables, chairs, &c. for them. Bareilly is famous for the brilliant varnish of its chairs, boxes, &c. 

Mr. Gltx on the various Classes of Population in Bareilly. 

**/ / 

Trade, &c. 

Number of Houses, 
Shops, &c. 


Earnings per 



Mewdtis, Watchmen, Run- " 
ners (a Mahomedan 
tribe) ■ 

14 Houses. 

Basatis, Clotb, Silk, and ) . n TT 

fine Carpet-dealers (Ma- J- f a gfuses. 

homedans) j 39 Shops. 

Tawaifs, Courtesans (Ma-") ,__ TT 

homedans)..... \ j 12a Houses - 

Khanagis, a superior sort 

of Courtesans (Mahome- 

dans) !• 

Ramjanis, Courtesans 

Mukhannas, Eunuchs 

14 Houses. 

18 Houses. 
1 House. 

Zanana, Eunuchs (Maho-' 1 . TT 
medans) I f ° Houses - 

Rangrez, Dyers (Mahome- "| 
dans) j 

Cot-makers (Hindus) 



3 to 4 

5 to 8 

4 to 100* 

44 Shops. 
18 Houses. 

26 Houses. 


(Thieving is hereditary in this tribe; 
) and according to the old pro- 
\ verb they make the best watch- 

( men 

(Classes of this description are 
) much under the control of the 
S Police, who have the means of 
* ascertaining their earnings. 

10 to 150 Most of these are kept mistresses. 

4 to 50f I 

5 to 6 

j" They gain their livelihood by 
\ singing. 

j , () q ("They gain their livelihood by 
j \ singing.j 

f Houses 177 1 too"; 

Tailors '] Shops 6i 18,i 

C 173 Ma. lOHin.: 


101 Hindus. ) j 
92 Mahom. ( j 

193 Houses. ) ! 

4 to 10 

4 too 

4 to 7 

4 to 10 

■ Cots orplain couches, made of wood 
plain or varnished, and bamboo 
or cotton string bedding, are used 
to sleep on by both the middling 
and higher classes ; the common 
people sleep on the ground. 

* At Lucknow, the court of a Mahomedan prince, women of this description often earn above 
1,000 rupees (£100) per mensem. Since the fall of Mahomedan power in these provinces, the gair.3 of 
this class have greatly diminished. 

f The smaller number of Hindu in proportion to Mahomedan courtesans, is a proof of the greater 
libertinism of the latter class, as far as regards the population of this town. 

Amount of Mahomedan Population 25,585 

Houses of Mahomedan Courtesans 139 

Amount of Hindu Population 40,205 

Houses of Hindu Courtesans ,.. 18 

% That there are two classes of eunuchs is owing to there being two different modes of emasculation. 

47S Mr. Glyn on the various Classes of Population in Bareilly. 

Trade, &c. 

Number of Houses, , E 4T n gf per | 
Shops, &c. | ^m*. j 



Seal-engravers (Mahome-i \ 3 Houses. \\ . . ' 

s. S\ ' " | 

dans) | J 5 Shops. 


Kan jars, a tribe of outcast: ) „ tj . f 2 to 3 ; ofte 

Hindus / 6 HutS - 1 : much less. 


Fakirs (Mendicants) 

A poor trade : this shows want of 
wealth in the higher classes who 
ought to be their customers. 

("This class sell rope and string 
) made of grass, and catch snakes ; 
they lead a wandering life and 
J eat the coarsest food, lizards and 
<. vermin of all sorts. 

69 Mahom. s ; Av i 

J50 Hindus. )jing S various; 
not specified. 

129 Houses. 

Bamboo-splitters (Maho-j \ . „ 

medans) \X 

Wire-drawers (Mahome- ) . n 

dans) ) o Houses. 

Kan-mail, Ear-cleaners and 
Brush-makers (Mahome 


22 Houses. 

Hindu and Mahomedan ") ,„„ 

Physicians } 16 HouseS - 


Greengrocers (Mahome- 1 1 .,„ 

dans) .. :} 51 Houses. 

Bhatyaras, a class of people 
attending strangers in 


caravanseras ( Mahome-. ( 
dans) ' j 

Mirasis, Men, Women, 1 ") 
and Boy-singers and Mu- > 
sicians (Mahomedans) ... ) 

Coarse-leather Stirrup and ~J 
Harness-makers and Yen- > 
ders 1 

151 Houses. 

41 Houses. 

6 Houses. 

3 to 4 

4 to 8 

3 to 4 

4 to 50 

4 to 8 

4 to 5 

I / 150 Hindus. \ 
Barbers / 118 Mahom. (, 

i ( 268 Houses. ) 

Printers and Stampers ( Ma- : 

f 3 Houses. \ 
\ 2 Shops. J 

Silk-thread Dealers (Hin-'\ 
dus) J 


("They gain their livelihood by beg- 
) gins; many hold charity lands. 
1 should estimate their earnings 
I at more than what many of the 
*- industrious classes earn. 


Some of these physicians hold 
lands tax-free, granted by Go- 
vernment; and most have other 
means besides their earnings by 
medical practice. Several prac- 
tice gratis amongst the poor. 

The Sarai's or Caravanseras are 
square courts, containing twen- 
ty to forty small rooms un- 
furnished, with the ground for a 
floor, and more like cells than 
apartments. Each room has its 
attendant Bhatyara. 

, , . '( Thev are continually hired to sing 
* t0 lo \\ and play at festivals, &c. 



5 to 6 

4 to 8 

4 to 

4 to 7 

{They make the rude harness used 
for country bullock carriages. 

'In this country barbers also prac- 
tise as surgeons ; many of them 
are very expert in the application 
of healing plants, but they are 
very ignorant of the use of sur- 
gical instruments. 

Mr. Glyn on the various Classes of Population in Bareilly. 479 

Trade, &c. 

Number of Houses, 
Shops, &c. 

Earnings per I 
Month. ! 


Chabina-farosh, Roasted- 
ffrain-dealers (Hin- 

14 Shops. 

Kulals, Coarse Earth ern ") 
Pot and Pan-makers and '- ~ " 
Venders (Hindus) .. 

.Tats, a caste of Hindus 
employed as Watchmen 
Servants, &c (Hindus) 





74 Houses. 

Cocoa-nut-dealers (Hindus) 

Chuna-farosh, Lime and. 
Mortar-dealers (Maho- 
medans) : 

Rope-dealers (Hindus) ...- 1 






Goat-skin-dressers (Hindus), 20 Houses. 

Kid-butchers (Mahonie-; ") 34 Houses, 

dans) '. j" 10 Shops. 


Ox-butchers (Mahome-") 147 Houses, 

dans) 'j* 15 Shops. 

Cotton-dealers (Hindus) ... 10 Shops. 

Shawl-menders (Mahome-, \ 8 Houses. 

dans) J 4 Shops. 

, >l 

Ink-dealers '{ 1 g° use - \\ 

I ( 2 Shops. J 

Gandhis, Perfumers (Ma- 


9 Houses. 
7 Shops. 

Brass and Pewter-moul- 


6 Houses. 
4 Shops. 


4 to 5 \\ 

5 to 6 

21 too 

4 to 5 
4 to 5 

4 to 5 

5 to 6 

5 to 6 

5 to 6 

4 to 5 

5 to 6 

3 to 6 
5. to 10 
5 to 15 

The lower classes of people lunch 

on roasted or parched grain, 

as in Europe on a crust of bread 

and cheese. This class buy the 

| parched grain or chabina of the 

I JBhorchit above mentioned, and 

*• sell it retail. 

("Mahomcdanscook theirfood chiefly 
■I in metallic vessels ; Hindus use 
i. almost entirely earthen vessels. 


In the interior of the district there 
are numbers of this caste, which 
includes numerous robbers. 

C Cocoa-nuts are chiefly produced 
J in and imported from the eastern 
\ provinces,. Bengal, Behar, &c. 

'The Hindus being prohibited the 
use of cow-leather, make their 
shoes or sandals, book-bindings, 
&c. of kid, deer, or sheep-skin. 

"The number of these butchers 
proves what a considerable arti- 
cle of food, kid and goat's-flesh 

. is. 

* Bareilly being formerly the capital of a Mahornedau state, cows and oxen have from time immemorial 
been slaughtered and sold within the town. The Hindus are now constantly protesting, and petitioning, 
against what they consider a great sacrilege. 

Vol. I. 3R 

480 Mr. Glyn- on the various Classes of Population in BareiUy. 

Trade, &c. 

Number of Houses, 
Shops, &c. 

Salt-dealers (Hindus) 

Shirini-farosh, Dealers 
Sweet-meats, offerings 
Idols (Hindus) 

Wood-merchants and dea- 
lers (Hindus and Maho- 


to > 

Rag-sellers (Hindus) 

Khatis, Bullock-carriage 
and Palankeen-makers 


Bamboo-dealers (Hindus) 

12 Shops. 
1 Shop. 

12 Shops. 

27 Houses. 

23 Houses. 
15 Houses. 

Bazigars, Tumblers and'") 

Rope-dancers (Mahome-| > 12 Houses, 
dans) ! ) 

Refiners of Dross of Metals 


4 Houses. 

Banjaras, Carriers and 1 
Bullock-drivers (Maho- V 24 Houses. 



Horse-breakers and Train-, 
ers (Mahomedans) ' 


Earnings per 




4 to 8 

j (The Pant&rU, or grocers, also 
j ) sell salt. The persons now 
i \ mentioned are the importers, 
) \ and sell chiefly by wholesale. 

! (This profitable manufacture of 
50 to 100 | •< sweet. offerings to the gods ap- 
(^ pears- to be a monopoly. 

10 to 40 

2 to 7 

3 to 4 

5 to 10 

2 to 4 

2 to 6 

4 to 10 

/"There are 175 bullock-carriages, 
I private and for hire, in the town 
J of Bareilly. They are a sort of 
\ covered cart drawn by two oxen 
1 abreast, in which the higher and 
[_ middling order of natives travel. 

They let out bullocks for the 
transport of military stores, and 
of private merchandize. 

1 » tt f ! 4 to 7 when i 

j 9 Houses, j j employed . 

« The tribe of Banjaras is very numerous, both in Hindustan and in the Deccan. Those in Rohil- 
cund are all converts from Hinduism to the faith of Mahomed ; they boast of being originally descended 
from some of the most noble of the Hindu tribes of Rajputs, as Pawars, Ckandels, Surya-vansi, &c. 
In the Bareilly district, there are calculated to be about 14,000 inhabitants of this description. These 
people pride themselves on the recollection of the warlike exploits of their Rajput ancestors. Many 
of them repeat from memory long poems recording their deeds of arms, of a period prior to the first 
Mahomedan invasion, or more than 800 years ago. I have frequently heard them singing these tradi- 
tionary poems, accompanied by the tambour and guitar. Besides carrying merchandize, the Banjarai 
find employment in cultivating lands, and in winnowing rice by contract for the neighbouring farmers. 
Their conversion from Hinduism was probably effected some centuries ago. 

Mr. Glynoti the various Classes of Population in Bareiily. 


Trade, &zc. 

1 Number of Houses, 
! Shops, Jic. 

Earnings per ; 
Month." i 


Chabuk-farosh, Whip andj"i 

Kora-makers and Deai-j > 7 Houses, 
ers (Mahomedans) ') 

Khakrobs, Sweepers, Sca~~) 

vengers, &c. (Mahome- V 74 Huts. 
dan or Hindu outcasts) \j 

Chamars, a Tribe of Hindu. \ j 2 q TJ„ts. 
outcasts / 

Korwars, a caste of 
dus who sell grain 
markets and streets 

• Hin- "J 
in the >■ 

25 Houses. 

Kisans, a caste of Hind 
Husbandmen ..... 

u :} 85 

85 Houses. 

Kurmi, a caste of Hindi 


Omraos, a caste of Hindu 

Joshis, a caste of Hindu 

Ahirs, Herdsmen (Hin- 

Kolars, Corn-factors and 
Dealers (Hindus) 


24 Houses. 

287 Houses. 

15 Houses. 

185 Houses. 

134 Houses. 

3 Shops. 


4 to 5 

2 to 5 

2 to 3 

4 to 10 

2 to 6 

4 to 8 

2 to 6 

5 to 6 
2 to 6 

10 to 15 
4 to 11 

fThe kora is an instrument of 
severe corporal punishment, like 
the Russian inout. A dexterous 
hand can inflict death with it at 
one blow. Ii is even now used 

^ for criminal punishment: but the 
breast and loins of the person 
to be flogged are always first 
covered withathick leather waist- 
coat, to prevent fatal accidents. 

C They work in the fields as labourers 
or prepare cow-!eather, a nd make 

J shoes, or carry burthens. They 
drink arrack, eat cow's-hesh, and 
practise other "things which the 
Hindus reckon abominations. 


" They cultivate the fields and kitchen 
gardens around the town : this is 
a very industrious class. The 
same remark is applicable to 
the two following classes. 

This class cultivate fields bearing 
the superior kinds of produce, as 
tobacco, cotton, roses, &c. 

'They cultivate round the town ; 
also winnow, clean, and grind 
corn and rice. The wives of 
the agricultural classes now 
mentioned share equally in their 

' They are chiefly employed in the 
transport of grain from the coun- 
try to the town, and its expor- 
tation to the provinces on the 
other side the Ganges. 

On a view of the detailed classification above exhibited, it cannot but im- 
mediately strike the observation how very backward and imperfect is the. 
subdivision of labour ; and how very few are the trades and manufactures 
in this, the chief town- of the very extensive and populous province of 
Rohilkhand. The same remark is indeed applicable to all the principal 
towns of Hindusthan ; the same indisputable signs of deficiency of capital, 


•*82 Mr. Gltx on the various Classes of Population in Bareilly. 

and want of industry, are found in all. Compare any town in the civilized 
parts of Europe, containing a population of 66,000 inhabitants, with Bareilly, 
and how many more varieties of trade and manufacture will be found in it, 
than this statement shews ! This is no doubt in some measure to be attributed 
to the nature of the climate, in which man has less occasion for quantity and 
variety of clothing, food, and household furniture than in Europe. The 
Hindu religion, that so strictly inculcates the dread of pollution, both in 
food and in dress, does also no doubt materially contribute to diminish the 
number of trades in Indian towns:* still although these circumstances do 
certainly tend to restrict the multiplication of handicrafts, the poverty of the 
people, and their low advance in civilization, must be admitted to be the 
principal cause. The very limited diffusion of wealth, and consequently the 
little demand for the conveniences and luxuries of life, limit the number 
of trades and manufactures to a very insignificant amount. The nations of 
Europe have very little idea of the actual condition of the inhabitants of 
Hindusthan : they are more wretchedly poor than we have any notion of. 
Europeans have hitherto been too apt to draw their opinions of the wealth 
of Hindusthan from the gorgeous pomp of a few emperors, sultans, nawabs, 
and rajas; whereas a more intimate and accurate view of the real state of 
society would have shewn, that these princes and nobles were engrossing 
all the wealth of the country, whilst the great body of the people were 
earning but a bare subsistence, groaning under intolerable burthens, and 
hardly able to supply themselves with the necessaries of life, much less with 
its luxuries. The statement of monthly earnings given in this enumeration 
is rather over than underrated: but it may serve to convey some notion of the 
comparative poverty of this people. The average rate of earnings appears 
to be from five shillings to eight shillings per month (taking the rupee at 
the exchange of two shillings). Wheat is the food of the higher classes in 
Hindusthan (by Hindusthan is meant the northern provinces of our Indian 
empire, between the Nerbada and the Setlej) ; but though wheat is 
three times cheaper in Hindusthan than in England, yet the earnings of both 

* Actuated by this superstitious notion, the greater part of the Hindus cook their own 
victuals, make and mend their own clothes, and wash their own linen ; and even the higher 
classes chiefly employ their own private servants in those offices, instead of resorting to shops 
for the supply of their wants. Hence butchers and bakers are wanting, and tailors and washer- 
men not numerous, in the Hindu part of the community. 

Mr. Gtrx on the various Classes of Popiilatioti in Bareitty. 483 

the middling and lower classes are too scanty to enable either class to live 
on such an article of luxury. The former mix with wheat, split-peas, 
vetches, and other vegetable productions : the lower classes subsist upon 
barley, millets, maize, tares, vetches, &c. But this is luxury compared with 
the food of the lower classes in the villages ; their earnings, rising only 
from four shillings to six shillings per mensem, force a recourse to the 
vilest food. The more scrupulous castes are obliged to mix with the coarse 
grains above-mentioned, wild roots, herbs, and insects ; while the outcasts, 
as the numerous race of Cluandrs, Kanjars, Dusdds, &c, scruple not to 
eat vermin, dead fish, and carrion. 

The statistical information above given affords abundant proof of the 
superior industry of the. Hindu to that of the Mahomedan. Of the 
Hindus nearly four-fifths are here found to be engaged in retail trade and 
manufactures : of the Mahomedan part of the population, only about three- 
fifths are engaged in the same pursuits. The Mahomedans of this part of 
the world have hitherto been little used to money-getting trades and 
professions : war- and sovereign rule have been their chief occupations. 
On the other hand, accumulation of wealth has for ages been the darling 
passion of the Hindu ; their maxims, and habits of life, peculiarly fit them 
for retail trades, commerce and manufactures. 

It will be observed that, setting aside the Nurbdfs, who are con- 
jectured to have been originally converts from Hinduism, the industry of 
the Mahomedans in Bareilly is, for the most part, confined to manufactures 
having relation to war, as sword cutlery, bow and arrow making, saddlery, 
farriery, elephant, camel or bullock driving, horse dealing, &c. ; or to those 
fine arts, inventions and luxuries, which may be supposed to have been in- 
duced by their forefathers from Persia or Arabia, as the manufacture of 
fine carpets, embroider}', hukkas, book-binding, and the trades of dyers, 
tobacco and beer dealers, engravers, turners, &c, or to trades which religious 
obstacles prevent the Hindu from exercising, as those of shoemakers, 
curriers, butchers, bakers, tailors, water-carriers, milk-dealers, &c. 

In the distribution of industry above exhibited, the political economist 
will not find much to gratify his ardour for social improvement. The amount 
of labour, applied to the production even of the conveniences of life, he 
will find very limited, and what is employed in the cultivation of the fine 
arts, or in the supply of the luxuries of civilized society, very small indeed ; 
he will regret, that division of labour, ingenuity, and enterprize, should 

484 Mr. Glyx on the -various Classes of Population in BareiMy. 

be so much impeded; not only by the fetters of caste and custom, but by 
want of capital ; and will be inclined to wonder how, under the government 
of a nation so eminently civilized and skilled in arts and manufactures as 
Great Britain, the manufactures of India should still continue to be carried 
on in the rudest and most unproductive style of process. 

On the other hand, he cannot fail to anticipate a great increase of the 
comforts and conveniences of life in India, and a most material improve- 
ment in the state of society, from the application of the arts and skill of 
Europe to the very imperfect manufactures of Hindusthan. The facility of 
such improvements will more particularly strike him with relation to those 
articles which may be considered the staple productions of this part x>f -India, 
and which are the chief subjects of its manufacturing industry in this town, 
such as cotton, sugar, leather, wood, stick-lac, glass, earthen-ware, &c 
When will their rude wooden sugar-presses, their awkward, ill-fashioned tools 
and instruments, and their earthern pots and earthen furnaces, be exchanged 
for some portion of the machinery of Europe ? It is needless to observe 
how much even the smallest improvement in their rude machinery must 
assist labour and facilitate production.